The hottest hydropower will usher in a decade of g

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Hydropower will usher in a decade of great development

in order to achieve the goal that non fossil energy will account for 15% of primary energy consumption by 2020, hydropower will bear 9 percentage points, and China's hydropower installed capacity is planned to reach 300million kW by 2015. Recently, zhangguobao, deputy director of the national development and Reform Commission and director of the national energy administration, looked forward to the development of hydropower in China in the next decade in an interview

the centennial development of hydropower is related to the fate of the country

question: on August 25, China's installed hydropower capacity reached 200million kW. What is the special significance of this figure

zhangguobao: at the beginning of liberation, the installed capacity of hydropower was only 360000 kW, but now it is 200million. How many generations are making contributions behind this number. At present, China's hydropower installed capacity and power generation capacity both rank first in the world. In the field of hydropower generation, it is no exaggeration to say that China is at the international advanced level

question: China's first hydropower station was established in 1910. The rapid development of hydropower stations was after the founding of new China. How do you evaluate the relationship between water, Europe and the United States to ensure product quality by relying on the company's reputation and the country's destiny

zhangguobao: hydropower development is closely related to the fate of the country! In 1910, some western science and technology were introduced to China. Because Yunnan Railway Development needed electricity, some people of insight raised funds through Yunnan private capital and used foreign technology to build China's first hydropower station, shilongba hydropower station. At present, China's hydropower installed capacity has reached 200million kW, and the Three Gorges power station has 700000 kW hydropower units, which is the largest in the world. From buying other people's equipment to the fact that Chinese people can make equipment themselves, they can not only do it now, but also go to the world. Today, Chinese builders can be seen on many hydropower construction bases in the world, and many equipment are provided by China. This is a great thing

hydropower will account for 9% of primary energy

question: according to the general survey results of China's hydropower resources, what are the principles and directions of hydropower development in the future

zhangguobao: China has promised the international community that the proportion of non fossil energy in China's primary energy consumption will increase to 15% by 2020. Among the non fossil energy, at present, water energy, nuclear energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, biomass energy, etc. are mainly used by human beings with relatively mature technology, in which water energy should play a leading role

many people believe that nuclear power can make a great contribution to 15%, but it is clear that 20million kW of nuclear power accounts for only 1% of China's primary energy. Even if nuclear power can reach 70million to 80million kW in the future, it will account for only 4% of China's primary energy, while wind energy, solar energy and other non fossil energy account for 2%, which means that at least 9% of the goal to achieve 15% depends on hydropower, Because hydropower is a clean and renewable energy with the highest degree of development and relatively mature technology in China. The current situation of emission reduction and the solemn commitments made by China have increased the urgency of hydropower development. Therefore, hydropower should be given prominence in the medium and long-term energy planning

question: to achieve the goal of hydropower accounting for 9% of primary energy consumption, China's hydropower installed capacity must reach 380million kW by 2020. What is the biggest challenge to achieve this goal

zhangguobao: challenging, but not an impossible task. At present, the installed capacity of hydropower in China is 200million kW, the scale under construction is about 70million kW (including pumped storage), and about 100million kW of installed capacity needs to be built. The hydropower stations put into operation in 2015 have been started now, and the hydropower stations started before 2015 can be completed before 2020. If hydropower projects can be started continuously in the next three years, it is possible to achieve the goal of 380million kW by 2020. Therefore, the 12th Five Year Plan for hydropower should be done well. Which power stations should be started during the 12th Five Year Plan? How to ensure the completion by 2020? These problems need detailed planning and design

hydropower development must pay attention to immigration and environmental protection

question: in the past few years, the approval of hydropower projects has been in a downturn. Do you think there will be a period of acceleration of hydropower approval next

zhangguobao: the speed of hydropower project approval is restricted by many factors. We must pay attention to and take measures to reduce the possible environmental impact of hydropower stations. In addition, we must pay more attention to the interests of immigrants and implement relevant policies. In terms of approval procedures, we must implement strict environmental assessment procedures, strictly follow the provisions of the Department of land and resources on measuring submerged land, abide by the water intake procedures of the water conservancy department, and carefully negotiate the power transmission mode and voltage level. The construction can only be started after ensuring the integrity of the procedures

at present, some units have not strictly implemented the procedures, and some places have also intercepted the river without authorization before meeting the environmental protection requirements. Therefore, in recent three years, in order to correct these problems, the speed of hydropower construction approval has slowed down. In the future, we will be more strict in environmental assessment, protection of the rights and interests of immigrants, occupation of land resources, transmission planning and other links, and speed up the development of hydropower under standardized conditions

question: what are the requirements for hydropower construction under such objectives

zhangguobao: in recent years, hydropower construction has played a certain role in the economic development of various regions, but it has also encountered problems such as immigration and environmental protection, because some environmentalists are worried that the construction of hydropower stations will cut off the flow of water and have an impact on the downstream ecology. At present, the relevant parties have paid more attention to these problems

good low-speed performance: both resettlement compensation and environmental protection need financial support. Can the income of hydropower projects cover the costs of resettlement compensation and environmental protection

zhangguobao: the construction of hydropower stations has two characteristics: first, the construction cycle is long. Building a thermal power station for 2 to 3 years is enough, while hydropower stations take as little as 5 years and as much as 6 to 8 years; Secondly, the investment is large. The unit kW investment of thermal power station is 4000 yuan, while that of hydropower station is 8000 yuan or even higher. Although the initial investment of hydropower station is large, the net income after depreciation is very high. In the past, affected by the planned economy, the fixed price of electricity adopted the method of repayment of principal and interest plus appropriate profits, so the price of hydropower is much lower than that of thermal power

many people advocate reversing this situation through the same price of water and fire, but the same price of water and fire also faces challenges. The same price of water and fire increases the cost of power companies' acquisition of hydropower, and the sales electricity price is correspondingly raised. If the government slows down the increase of sales electricity price due to factors such as inflation, residents' affordability and social stability, who will pay for the same price of water and fire? This is the same as the principle of coal electricity linkage

considering the environmental and resettlement costs of hydropower, water and fire should be priced at the same price, but this problem is still under discussion. I am also thinking about whether we can use the income increased by hydropower after the same price of water and fire to solve problems such as rural insurance

all walks of life should treat hydropower objectively and rationally

question: do you think the public's views on the environmental protection and immigration issues involved in hydropower are objective? Is there any misunderstanding, prejudice or amplification of negative effects

zhangguobao: Generally speaking, the supervision of hydropower development by all sectors of society, including the media, is conducive to our environmental protection and immigration work. The public attaches importance to environmental protection and the rights and interests of immigrants, and urges us to constantly optimize and improve our plans in hydropower development

but some reports did magnify the problem. For example, a few years ago, someone said that hydropower emits more greenhouse gases than thermal power. The answer of relevant experts is that the amount of methane gas emitted by flooding trees in the construction of hydropower stations is much limited compared with the carbon dioxide emitted by burning coal all year round. Others questioned that the construction of hydropower stations had caused this year's drought in the southwest, but scientific analysis showed that less rainfall was the main cause of the drought. After the May 12 Wenchuan earthquake, many people believed that Zipingpu Hydropower Station was very dangerous. But after the earthquake, I worked on the site for 18 days and saw that under the earthquake intensity that twisted the earth into a fried dough twist, no dam of more than a dozen hydropower stations, large and small, in the Minjiang River Basin broke

question: some people speculate whether the earthquake is related to the Three Gorges Dam? Has the huge water load of the Three Gorges Dam affected the earth's rotation and changed the geological structure

zhangguobao: I have noticed these reports, and I have also thought about these loads that may not be added. At best, all these are just assumptions, which have not been scientifically verified. The scientific community has also done a lot of research on whether the construction of a reservoir will cause an earthquake. So far, there is no sufficient evidence to conclude that the construction of a reservoir will inevitably cause an earthquake, but this is a problem worthy of further research. Fatigue testing machine is a kind of equipment used more in many industries

I am also thinking, for example, will the existence of Taihu Lake and Dongting Lake lead to earthquakes around? Not exactly. Think about it again. How much incentive does water have for earthquakes? Is it also prone to earthquakes near the Bohai Sea? I haven't figured it out very well. I've thought about these problems and checked many literatures. So far, there is no accurate scientific basis to support it

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